Dangerous goods are present in our lives at almost every step. We use them every day at home in the form of disinfectants, cosmetics or chemicals. The transport of dangerous goods, due to their specific properties, can pose a serious threat to people and the environment.
The term Dangerous goods is used to describe materials and items that, if transported in improper conditions due to their own physical, chemical and biological properties, may cause loss of health or life, environmental contamination or destruction or damage to other material goods.
International road transport of dangerous goods is one of the most demanded services in such an area as international freight transport. Special requirements and high risks force the senders to think carefully and carefully when choosing a carrier and give preference to trusted companies with experience and reputation.
International ADR Convention
The International Convention on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) is a convention that applies to the carriage of dangerous goods by road. It was received in Geneva on September 30, 1957 .
ADR Agreement is renewed every two years on an odd year. It consists of the Agreement itself and Appendices A and B, which are an integral part of it. The corresponding agreement defines the legal relations between the participating countries, and the annexes contain provisions that largely regulate the conditions for the carriage of certain hazardous materials in international road transport.
Dangerous Goods and Goods are materials and items that are prohibited from carriage or permitted only under strict legal conditions. Due to the detailed standards and regulations, ADR (Dangerous Goods) transport is one of the most difficult to organize.
First of all, a vehicle transporting hazardous substances must be properly marked – the symbol applied to it corresponds to the material class according to the ADR convention . Secondly, the driver must have special equipment that will allow him to secure the place of a possible accident, and undergo appropriate training.
Appendix A breaks down all hazardous materials produced in the world into 13 hazard classes and gives a detailed classification of these materials for each class./p>
Appendix B installs:
- conditions of carriage of certain hazardous materials;
- technical condition of vehicles;
- technical condition of trailers (semi-trailers), tanks and containers – tanks;
- conditions for marking vehicles and their additional equipment;
- conditions for loading and unloading individual materials;
- it is prohibited to load cargo together in one vehicle;
- requirements for persons participating in the carriage.
Classification of dangerous goods
Class 1 – Explosive substances and articles
A chemical substance, product or mixture of substances that, under the influence of external influences, are capable of a rapid self-propagating chemical transformation with the release of a large amount of heat and gaseous products.
1.1 Explosive materials with a mass explosion hazard
Explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products capable of exploding in mass
- UN No. 0027 Gunpowder, smoky
- UN No.-144 Nitroglycerin, alcohol solution
1.2 Explosive materials that do not explode in mass
Explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products, characterized by the scattering of fragments
- UN No. 0009 Ammunition, incendiary
- UN No. Flammable Liquid Bombs
1.3 Explosive materials, flammable, non-explosive mass
Explosive and pyrotechnic substances and products that emit a large amount of heat during combustion, or ignite one after another with a slight effect of explosion or projection of debris.
- № UN 0396 Liquid propellant rocket engines.
- № UN 0009 Small arms ammunition
1.4 Explosive materials that pose no significant hazard
Explosives and pyrotechnic substances and products presenting a negligible hazard during transportation only in the event of ignition or initiation
- UN No. 0431 Pyrotechnic articles
- UN No. 0014 Ammunition for small arms
1.5 Very insensitive explosives
Explosives with a mass explosion hazard, which are so insensitive that no initiation or transition from combustion to detonation should occur during transport.
- UN No. 0482 Very low sensitivity explosives
1.6 Extremely insensitive items
Articles containing substances that are extremely insensitive to detonation, do not explode in mass and have a low probability of accidental initiation.
- UN No. 0486 Very sensitive explosives.
Class 2 – Gases
Compressed gases, liquefied gases and soluble gases under pressure. Gas is a substance, the absolute vapor pressure of which at a temperature of 50° С is not less than 30 kPa (kgf / cm²) or the critical temperature of which is less than 50° С.
Due to their hazardous properties, the gases were divided into groups: asphyxiant (A), oxidizing (O), flammable (F), toxic (T), poisonous, flammable (TF), poisonous, corrosive (TC), poisonous, oxidizing (TO), toxic, flammable, corrosive (TFC), toxic, oxidizing, corrosive (TOC).
As in the case of the first class, also in the case of gases, there are three main divisions: flammable gases (marked in groups with the letter F); non-flammable, non-toxic gases (indicated by letters «О» и «А»); poisonous gases (groups marked with the letter T).
2.1 Non-flammable non-toxic gases
- UN No. 1006 Argon
- UN No. 1066 Nitrogen
- UN No. 1072 Oxygen
2.2 Poisonous gases
Poisonous, non-flammable gases
- UN No. 1017 Chlorine
- UN No. 1076 Phosgene
2.3 Flammable (combustible) gases
Refers to non-toxic gases that form flammable mixtures with air.
- UN No. 1026 Cyan
- UN No. 1053 Hydrogen sulphide
2.4 Poisonous and flammable gases
Refers to poisonous gases that form flammable mixtures with air
Class 3 – Flammable liquids
The third class of hazardous materials is flammable liquids. These include all types of paints, adhesives, solvents, fuel oil, gasoline, cosmetics, alcoholic beverages, resins and wood impregnations. These substances can ignite even as a result of sparks, including electrostatic ones, caused by the rapid movement of liquid, for example, as a result of an impact or higher temperatures, which can cause spontaneous combustion. The lower this temperature, the more dangerous the liquid.
The degree of hazard of cargo of class 3 is determined by the flash point and boiling point and criteria in accordance with table.
|Indicator name||The criterion of the degree of danger|
|Closed Cup Flash Point||–||<23||<61|
|Boiling temperature, °С||<35||>35||>35|
3.1 Flammable liquids with a flash point less than minus 18° C in a closed cup
- UN No. 1203 Gasoline, motor
- UN No. 1267 Crude oil
3.2 Flammable liquids with a flash point of at least minus 18° C, but less than 23° C, in a closed crucible
- № ООН 1170 Ethanol
3.3 Легковоспламеняющиеся жидкости с температурой вспышки не менее 23°C, но не более 61°C, в закрытом тигле
- № ООН 1202 Diesel fuel
- № ООН 1299 Turpentine
Class 4 — Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives
They are included in packing group II or III. Self-reactive materials are in liquid or solid form and are thermally unstable. According to the degree of danger, they are divided into seven types – from A to G. Some of them require a controlled temperature during transport, others do not. On the other hand, solid desensitized explosives are materials that have been diluted or moistened with an appropriate substance that reduces their explosive properties.
Includes self-igniting materials, i.e. substances that explode within 5 minutes on contact with air, and self-heating materials. Unlike the first, the latter spontaneously ignite after a much longer time. Examples of pyrophoric materials: fishmeal, white and yellow phosphorus. These materials are divided into three groups of packaging.
4.1 Flammable solids
These are non-explosive, flammable solids that can ignite easily or cause a fire by friction.
- № ООН 1869 Magnesium (granules, shavings)
- № ООН 1944 Спички безопасные
- Cotton wool, fused naphthalene, tow
4.2 Spontaneously combustible substances
Substances that are capable of spontaneous combustion, heating to ignite
- activated carbon
- tarred rags
- phosphorus white or yellow dry
4.3 Substances that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Substances that emit spontaneously flammable gases, when interacting with water, emit
Materials which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases. These are all types of alloys of potassium, sodium and chlorosilanes. We classify them based on the volume of gas that was released from a unit of material in relation to the time it was released as a result of its reaction with water. There are also three packing groups here.
- UN No. 1402 Calcium carbite
- UN No. 1428 Sodium
- UN No. 1415 Lithium
Class 5 – Oxidizing substances
Oxidizing agents and organic peroxides. Substances that can easily release oxygen, sustain combustion, self-ignite and explode.
5.1 Oxidizing agents
These include oxidizing substances that support combustion, cause and / or contribute to the ignition of other substances as a result of the release of oxygen. These are both liquid and solid materials, which, due to the release of oxygen, can support the combustion of other materials. An example is fertilizers (ammonium nitrate). They are divided into three groups of packaging.
- UN No. 3149 Hydrogen peroxide
- UN No. 1486 Potassium nitrate (nitrate)
5.2 Organic peroxides
Organic peroxides are classified. These substances are flammable, can act as oxidizing substances and interact dangerously with other substances.
These are organic materials that generate large amounts of heat during self-accelerating decomposition, which can be caused by heat or friction, and because they are flammable and burn without air access, they have oxidizing properties.
- UN 3101 Organic peroxide type B, liquid
- UN No. 3114 Organic peroxide type C, solid, temperature-controlled.
Class 6 — Poisonous and infectious substances
Consist of poisonous materials, that is, all types of antifungal drugs, bactericides or plant protection products that, if they enter the human body through the skin or mucous membranes, poison it.
Lethal (lethal) dose LD50 dose, expressed in milligrams of substance per kilogram of live weight, which, when administered orally or when applied to the skin, causes the death of 50% of experimental animals (white rats observed for 14 days).
6.1 Toxic substances
May cause poisoning by inhalation (vapor, dust), ingestion and / or skin contact.
Includes infectious materials, that is, all medical and postoperative waste, diagnostic specimens that may contain pathogens, parasites, fungi, etc. There are two additional categories within this class. Category A, which includes infectious materials that can cause disability or fatal illness for both humans and animals, and Category B, that is, infectious materials that do not fall under group A. Remember that protective clothing and vehicles are also susceptible to pollution!
- UN No. 1558 Arsenic
- UN No. 1654 Nicotine
6.2 Infectious substances
Infectious substances containing pathogens that are dangerous to humans and (or) animals are classified
- UN No. 2814 Infectious substance hazardous to humans
- UN No. 2900 Infectious Substance Dangerous to Animals
Class 7 – Radioactive material
These include nuclear fuel, isotope smoke detectors, or radioactive sources in telegammotherapy devices. These are substances that emit harmful radiation, which cannot be seen and felt without special equipment. Radioactive materials are not divided into subclasses.
- UN No. 2915 Radioactive material, Type A packaging
Transport index is a universal indicator of the hazard of radioactive cargo during transportation, which characterizes both the hazard of radioactive radiation and the conditions of nuclear safety.
The transport category of a radiation package is determined depending on its transport index and the maximum radiation level on the surface of the package in accordance with table.
|Radiation package transport category||Transport index||Maximum radiation level, m3v / h (mrem / h)|
|on the surface of the package||at a distance of 1 m from the surface of the package|
If the radiation package corresponds to one category according to the transport index, and the level of radiation on the surface corresponds to another, then the package must be assigned to the higher of these two categories (transport category 1 is considered as the lowest. The degree of hazard – not assigned).
Class 8 – Corrosive substances
This class includes substances that, due to their chemical action, can cause serious damage to tissue when in contact with it, or, in the event of leaks or spills, can also have other hazardous properties.
- UN No. 1830 Sulfuric acid
- UN No. 2809 Mercury
8.1 Caustic and (or) corrosive substances with acidic properties
These are aggressive materials. We distinguish between two types of materials: those that pose a hazard in case of contact with water, steam or in conditions of natural humidity, which can give off toxic vapors, and those that, due to chemical attack, if in contact with them, can damage tissues, causing burns or corrode other products. Includes all types of acids, alkalis, bleaches, mercury, batteries.
- nitric acid, concentration above 75%
- nitric acid, concentration 75% and below
- formic acid
- sulfuric acid
- acetic acid, glacial and concentrated over 90%
- phosphoric acid
8.2 Corrosive and (or) corrosive substances with basic properties
- sodium hydroxide
- potassium oxide
- sodium oxide
- caustic potassium
- alkaline waste
- ammonia solutions containing more than 10%, but not more than 35% ammonium ammonium sulfide
8.3 Various caustic and / or corrosive substances
Substances that are not assigned to subclass 8.1 and 8.2, but which have an effect on living tissue and (or) a corrosive effect on metals, are classified.
- potassium hypochloride solutions and sodium hypochide solutions containing more than 5%, but not less than 16% of active chlorine
- aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide containing 8% or more, but not less than 20% hydrogen peroxide
- formaldehyde in aqueous solutions such as formalin
Class 9 – Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
Substances with a relatively low hazard during transportation are classified, but not assigned to the previous classes, but requiring the application of certain rules for transportation and storage to them. These are various hazardous materials and items. Materials that pose a hazard during transportation other than those listed in groups 1-8 are classified here, for example: emergency items that automatically inflate, lithium batteries for cell phones, first aid kits. These materials belong to packing group II or III.
- UN No. 3090 Lithium metal batteries in equipment
- UN No. 3268 Airbag devices
9.1 Cargo not classified 1 – 8
Solid and liquid combustible substances and materials that do not belong to the 3rd and 4th class in their properties, but under certain conditions can be dangerous in a fire relation (flammable liquids with a flash point from plus 61 ° C to plus 100 ° C in a closed vessel, fibers and other similar materials) (viscous bitumen, liquid bitumen, solid bitumen, fuel oil, crude oil for the production of drying oil).
9.2 Cargoes with types of danger, the manifestation of which is dangerous only when they are transported in bulk by water transport
- Substances that become caustic and corrosive under certain conditions
- coal ammonia, ammonia, liquid nitrogen fertilizer
Classification of the degree of danger of goods
The following hazards are distinguished:
- highly flammable,
- spontaneous reactions (polymerization),
- hazardous reactions with water or other substances
- increased toxicity, health hazard,
- corrosive, corrosive,
- the release of poisonous gases during combustion,
- threat to water resources,
- gas pressure,
- danger of infection
- high temperature, etc.
For dangerous goods, except for goods of classes 1, 2, 7 and subclasses 6.2 and 9.2 , the following hazard groups and packages are established:
- High degree of danger – I packing group.
- Medium degree of danger – Packing group II .
- Low level of danger – III packing group .
Who can transport hazardous materials
The ADR Agreement places special demands on drivers and entrepreneurs who perform logistic tasks, transport or unload hazardous materials. The regulations for the transport of dangerous goods clearly state that a driver wishing to transport such goods must undergo appropriate training, pass an exam and have an ADR certificate. Therefore, they cannot be sent by courier.
Obligations of the sender, carrier and consignee of dangerous goods
Before shipment, the sender of goods deemed dangerous must ensure that they meet the ADR requirements, that is, they are properly classified and approved for transport. He must also provide the carrier of such goods with all relevant transport documents and permits. He is also responsible for properly labeling transport tanks and taking care of their tightness and efficiency.
A carrier who transports ADR goods must also ensure that the cargo entrusted to him is admitted for carriage in accordance with the ADR agreement and that he has the appropriate documentation. The carrier is also responsible for the proper preparation and efficiency of vehicles used for the transport of dangerous goods, as well as ensuring that the vehicle is properly marked by the Sender.
The consignee of dangerous goods cannot delay the acceptance of such transport without good reason. His responsibilities also include cleaning the vehicle after unloading and removing all signs and stickers with information about the type of product transported.
Dangerous goods ADR in international transport
If you want to ship dangerous products to another country, first check to see if you can do it – the ADR rules are just one piece of legislation – each country also has its own rules for products prohibited from cross-border trade. Many of them cannot be shipped without proper permission or license. So it would be good to know in advance if we can actually ship the goods or if we need to get the appropriate shipping documents.
Warning! If a carrier discovers that a package contains prohibited or dangerous goods, it can be delayed or even handed over to the appropriate authorities if there is a suspicion of violation. Such a decision can also be made when there is a suspicion that the cargo is packed in such a way that it threatens the courier or the people transporting it.
Transportation of dangerous goods by road
The carriage of dangerous goods by road must comply with the requirements of Ukrainian and international legislation and be carried out in a special container and with pre-prepared permissive documents. CargoSupport carries out transportation of dangerous goods weighing from 500 kg to 20 tons.
We work on international routes – to the countries of Europe and Asia. Thanks to numerous partners among reliable transport companies, we guarantee the safe transportation of dangerous goods of any complexity. Entrusting us with the transportation of dangerous goods, you can be sure about the safety and security of your cargo.
For advice on the transport of dangerous goods, please contactайтесь к нашим специалистам. Мы поможем разработать — маршрут, сэкономим ваше время и деньги.
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